The course will be divided into two parts: in the first part, the establishment of the modern concept of political revolution will be analyzed starting from its astrological matrices; in the second part, the course will focuse on the theories of revolution - anthropological, social, political, religious - elaborated by the regimes and the mass movements of the first half of the 20th century: Communism, Fascism, Nazism.
The course will take place in a seminar format through the direct reading of texts by Lenin and Gramsci; Gentile and Rocco; Schmitt and Heidegger. Particular attention will be paid to the analysis of the main terms of the "revolutionary" lexicon of the first half of the century: individual, people, mass, class, race.
This course is designed to illustrate the close connection between philosophy and politics in 20th century culture by focusing on the concept of revolution. Furthermore, it will be shown that crucial political concepts such as that of revolution result from the secularization of ancient astrological concepts. The relevance of lexical and terminological analysis in the field of History of Philosophy will be firmly emphasized throughout the year.